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The Chemistry of Oil

more chemical bonds to form between the atoms. The exact chemical composition and structure of crude oil depends on which critters originally went into it, how long it baked underground, and at what temperature. Oil refineries Once it comes out of the ground, the oil .

Production of Bio-oil from Pine Sawdust by Rapid Pyrolysis .

Results showed that the optimal reaction temperature for bio-oil production was 462°C. The maximum bio-oil yield was approximately 68.4 wt%. The density of bio-oil was found to be 1.2 g/ml. The lower heating value of the bio-oil was 18.2 MJ/kg, while the pH values of the bio-oil were approximately 2.5. The solids and ash contents of bio-oil .

Castor oil as a potential renewable resource for the .

Jul 15, 2016 · Castor oil is increasingly becoming an important bio-based raw material for industrial applications. The oil is non-edible and can be extracted from castor seeds from the castor plant belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The oil is a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid esters linked to a glycerol. The presence of hydroxyl group, a double bond, carboxylic group and a long chain .

Plug Flow Reactors - Chemical Engineering

Common industrial uses of tubular reactors are in gasoline production, oil cracking, synthesis of ammonia from its elements, and the oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide. Pictured below is a tubular reactor used in research on the oxidation of nitrogen compounds.

Bio-oil production and upgrading research: A review .

The solvent addition reduces the oil viscosity due to the following three mechanisms: (1) physical dilution without affecting the chemical reaction rates; (2) reducing the reaction rate by molecular dilution or by changing the oil microstructure; (3) chemical reactions between the solvent and the oil components that prevent further chain growth .

What is the chemical reaction involved in the production .

To understand this, you have to remember that soap is a utility product and its composition is dependant on end use. But, basic chemical and physical phenomenon remains same. First lets see what soap is. Imagine a very basic soap, no scent .

Chemical Reactors > Design of The Reactors > The .

Chemical reactors. The reactors, in which chemicals are made in industry, vary in size from a few cm 3 to the vast structures that are often depicted in photographs of industrial plants. For example, kilns that produce lime from limestone may be over 25 metres high and hold, at .

Hydrogen production - Wikipedia

The production of hydrogen plays a key role in any industrialized society, since hydrogen is required for many essential chemical processes. As of 2019 [update], roughly 70 million tons of hydrogen are produced annually worldwide for various uses, such as, oil refining, and in the production of ammonia ( Haber process ) and methanol (reduction .

Production of biodiesel from Soybean Oil and Methanol .

We warrant that the article Anhydrous Production of Biodiesel from Soybean Oil and Methanol, Catalyzed by Calcium Oxide in a Recycle Reactor submited to South African Journal of Chemical Engineering is the Authors' original work. We warrant that the article has not received prior publication and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

Biodiesel Production Principles and Processes – Farm Energy

Apr 03, 2019 · The chemical reaction used to make biodiesel requires a catalyst. A catalyst is usually a chemical added to the reaction mixture to speed up the reaction. Since the catalyst is not consumed in the reaction, it will be left over at the end in some form. In biodiesel production, the actual compound that catalyzes the reaction is called methoxide.

Chemical reactor - Wikipedia

Chemical reactor - Wikipedia

Chemical plant - Wikipedia

A chemical plant is an industrial process plant that manufactures (or otherwise processes) chemicals, usually on a large scale. The general objective of a chemical plant is to create new material wealth via the chemical or biological transformation and or separation of materials. Chemical plants use specialized equipment, units, and technology in the manufacturing process.

Chemical reactors - Essential Chemical Industry

Chemical engineers are designing reactors where the fluids to be reacted are oscillated inside a reactor with baffles at frequencies between 0.5 and 15 Hz with amplitudes in the range 1 to 100 mm. This allows for very effective mixing of the reactants and also for heat to be transferred to the surroundings.

Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network .

Jul 03, 2020 · Response surface methodology (RSM) and Artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of crude palm kernel oil (CPKO) biodiesel production, using KOH and Na.

How acetylene is made - material, making, used, processing .

The chemical reaction may be written as CaC 2 + 2 H 2 O → C 2 H 2 + Ca(OH) 2 . Other processes use natural gas, which is mostly methane, or a petroleum-based hydrocarbon such as crude oil, naphtha, or bunker C oil as raw materials. Coal can also be used.

Green Oil Production by Hydroprocessing

Biomass pyrolysis oil was made from biomass pyrolysis process, which also can be called bio-oil, pyrolysis oil, or bio-crude for short. In order to produce bio-oil, a short reactor times and rapid cooling or quenching from the pyrolysis temperatures are required [32]. Thus, biomass pyrolysis oil is not a product of thermodynamic equilib-rium.

Reactors for Biodiesel Production – Farm Energy

Ultrasonic Biodiesel Reactors. Ultrasound is a useful tool to mix liquids that tend to separate. In biodiesel production, adequate mixing is required to create sufficient contact between the vegetable oil/animal fat and alcohol, especially at the beginning of the reaction.

The Chemistry of Biodiesel Production

Jan 19, 2013 · The catalyst is then dissolved into methanol to create what is called methoxide. The oil is heated and the methoxide is mixed in and the chemical reaction begins. As the catalyst is mixed with the oil, it breaks the chemical bond between the fatty acid chain and the glycerol back bone.

Biodiesel from Algae Oil - microbewiki

Algal oil is converted into biodiesel through a transesterification process. Oil extracted from the algae is mixed with alcohol and an acid or a base to produce the fatty acid methylesters that makes up the biodiesel. An excess of methanol is used to force the reaction to favor the right side of the equation.

Biodiesel Production in Stirred Tank Chemical Reactors: A .

Biodiesel Production in Stirred Tank Chemical Reactors: A Numerical Simulation Alejandro Regalado-Me´ndez, Rubı´ Romero Romero, Reyna Natividad Rangel, and Sigurd Skogestad Abstract The biodiesel production was performed in stirred tank chemical reactor by numerical simulation. The main results are that the percentage of conversion from .

DWE reactors from MAN Energy Solutions located in Deggendorf

DWE®, a subsidiary of MAN Energy Solutions, manufactures tailor-made chemical reactors to meet your individual requirements. We offer salt-operated and water-/oil-/gas- operated reactors up to 10 meter in diameter and 1,800 t in weight as well as customized reactors.

The chemical industry

The chemical industry creates an immense variety of products which impinge on virtually every aspect of our lives. Figure 1 The chemical industry is one of the largest manufacturing industries in all developed and emerging countries. This is a view of the largest site in the world devoted to the industry, at Ludwigshaven in Germany.

6.1 Carbon Black

6.1 Carbon Black 6.1.1 Process Description Carbon black is produced by the reaction of a hydrocarbon fuel such as oil or gas with a limited supply of combustion air at .


Exothermic Chemical Treatment ® (ECT ®), often referred to as Binary Mixture – Technology (BM-Technology) stimulates oil reservoirs by producing heat and pressure and by an oil combustion chemical reaction (oxidizing process with the oil).Therefore it is a multiple stage enhanced oil recovery technology. In combination with high pressure generated during the chemical reactions and heat in .

Oil And Gas Production Chemicals - Antiscalants .

Production chemicals for use in oil and gas fields. We have a number of specialty and custom chemicals for oil and gas companies as well as offering chemical monitoring services in the field. Antiscalants, defoamers, corrosion inhibitors and more.

How gasoline is made - manufacture, making, used, parts .

Gasoline is a volatile, flammable liquid obtained from the refinement of petroleum, or crude oil. It was originally discarded as a byproduct of kerosene production, but its ability to vaporize at low temperatures made it a useful fuel for many machines.

The chemical industry

The chemical industry creates an immense variety of products which impinge on virtually every aspect of our lives. Figure 1 The chemical industry is one of the largest manufacturing industries in all developed and emerging countries. This is a view of the largest site in the world devoted to the industry, at Ludwigshaven in Germany.

The process of crude oil refining | EME 801: Energy .

Upstream activities involve exploring for crude oil deposits and the production of crude oil. Examples of firms that would belong in the upstream segment of the industry include companies that own rights to drill for oil (e.g., ExxonMobil) and companies that provide support services to the drilling segment of the industry (e.g. Halliburton).

Production of valuable chemicals from oil palm biomass .

Oil palm industry discharges a large amount of biomass waste which can be converted into energy and chemicals. Hence, several biomass conversion methods are available, such as fermentation, pyrolysis, and gasification. In this work, the hot-compressed water method was proposed to produce valuable chemicals from oil palm biomass (oil palm fiber, shell, and empty fruit bunches).

How plastics are made :: PlasticsEurope

The production of plastics begins with the distillation of crude oil in an oil refinery. This separates the heavy crude oil into groups of lighter components, called fractions. Each fraction is a mixture of hydrocarbon chains (chemical compounds made up of carbon and hydrogen), which differ in terms of the size and structure of their molecules.